Skip to content

# Normalize transform ​

The normalize transform is a specialized map transform that normalizes series values relative to some basis, say to convert absolute values into relative values. For example, here is an index chart — a type of multi-series line chart — showing the return of several stocks relative to their closing price on a particular date.

Fork
js
``````Plot.plot({
y: {
type: "log",
grid: true,
label: "Change in price (%)",
tickFormat: ((f) => (x) => f((x - 1) * 100))(d3.format("+d"))
},
marks: [
Plot.ruleY([1]),
Plot.line(stocks, Plot.normalizeY({
x: "Date",
y: "Close",
stroke: "Symbol"
})),
Plot.text(stocks, Plot.selectLast(Plot.normalizeY({
x: "Date",
y: "Close",
z: "Symbol",
text: "Symbol",
textAnchor: "start",
dx: 3
})))
]
})``````

TIP

The select transform is used to label the endpoints of each line.

INFO

This example uses an immediately-invoked function expression (IIFE) for the tickFormat option so that the d3.format only needs to be constructed once.

The normalize transform converts absolute values into relative ones. So, if y is [y₀, y₁, y₂, …] and the first basis is used with normalizeY, the resulting output y channel is [y₀ / y₀, y₁ / y₀, y₂ / y₀, …]. But it’s a bit more complicated than this in practice since y is first grouped by z, fill, or stroke into separate series.

As another example, the normalize transform can be used to compute proportional demographics from absolute populations. The plot below compares the demographics of U.S. states: color represents age group, y represents the state, and x represents the proportion of the state’s population in that age group.

Fork
js
``````Plot.plot({
height: 660,
axis: null,
grid: true,
x: {
axis: "top",
label: "Population (%)",
percent: true
},
color: {
scheme: "spectral",
domain: stateage.ages, // in age order
legend: true
},
marks: [
Plot.ruleX([0]),
Plot.ruleY(stateage, Plot.groupY({x1: "min", x2: "max"}, {...xy, sort: {y: "x1"}})),
Plot.dot(stateage, {...xy, fill: "age", title: "age"}),
Plot.text(stateage, Plot.selectMinX({...xy, textAnchor: "end", dx: -6, text: "state"}))
]
})``````
js
``xy = Plot.normalizeX("sum", {z: "state", x: "population", y: "state"})``

TIP

To reduce code duplication, pull shared options out into an object (here `xy`) and then merge them into each mark’s options using the spread operator (`...`).

## Normalize options ​

The basis option specifies how to normalize the series values; it is one of:

• first - the first value, as in an index chart; the default
• last - the last value
• min - the minimum value
• max - the maximum value
• mean - the mean value (average)
• median - the median value
• pXX - the percentile value, where XX is a number in [00,99]
• sum - the sum of values
• extent - the minimum is mapped to zero, and the maximum to one
• deviation - subtract the mean, then divide by the standard deviation
• a function to be passed an array of values, returning the desired basis
• a function to be passed an index and channel value array, returning the desired basis

## normalize(basis) ^0.2.3​

js
``Plot.map({y: Plot.normalize("first")}, {x: "Date", y: "Close", stroke: "Symbol"})``

Returns a normalize map method for the given basis, suitable for use with the map transform.

## normalizeX(basis, options) ​

js
``Plot.normalizeX("first", {y: "Date", x: "Close", stroke: "Symbol"})``

Like mapX, but applies the normalize map method with the given basis. The basis option can also be mixed into the specified options like so:

js
``Plot.normalizeX({basis: "first", y: "Date", x: "Close", stroke: "Symbol"})``

If not specified, the basis defaults to first.

## normalizeY(basis, options) ​

js
``Plot.normalizeY("first", {x: "Date", y: "Close", stroke: "Symbol"})``

Like mapY, but applies the normalize map method with the given basis. The basis option can also be mixed into the specified options like so:

js
``Plot.normalizeY({basis: "first", x: "Date", y: "Close", stroke: "Symbol"})``

If not specified, the basis defaults to first.

Resources
Observable
© 2024 Observable, Inc. ISC License