# Window transform ​

The window transform is a specialized map transform that computes a moving window and then derives summary statistics from the current window, say to compute rolling averages, rolling minimums, or rolling maximums.

For example, the band chart below shows the daily high and low temperature in San Francisco. The red line represents the 7-day average high, and the blue line the 7-day average low.

Fork
js
``````Plot.plot({
y: {
grid: true,
label: "Temperature (°F)"
},
marks: [
Plot.areaY(sftemp, {x: "date", y1: "low", y2: "high", fillOpacity: 0.3}),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY(k, {x: "date", y: "low", stroke: "blue"})),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY(k, {x: "date", y: "high", stroke: "red"}))
]
})``````
``````Plot.plot({
y: {
grid: true,
label: "Temperature (°F)"
},
marks: [
Plot.areaY(sftemp, {x: "date", y1: "low", y2: "high", fillOpacity: 0.3}),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY(k, {x: "date", y: "low", stroke: "blue"})),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY(k, {x: "date", y: "high", stroke: "red"}))
]
})``````

The k option specifies the window size: the number of consecutive elements in the rolling window. A larger window for the rolling mean above produces a smoother curve.

The anchor specifies how to align the rolling window with the data. If middle (the default), the window is centered around the current data point; for time-series data, this means the window will incorporate values from the future as well as the past. Setting anchor to end will compute a trailing moving average.

Anchor:

Fork
js
``````Plot.plot({
y: {
grid: true,
label: "Temperature (°F)"
},
marks: [
Plot.lineY(sftemp, {x: "date", y: "high", strokeOpacity: 0.3}),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, anchor}, {x: "date", y: "high"}))
]
})``````
``````Plot.plot({
y: {
grid: true,
label: "Temperature (°F)"
},
marks: [
Plot.lineY(sftemp, {x: "date", y: "high", strokeOpacity: 0.3}),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, anchor}, {x: "date", y: "high"}))
]
})``````

The window transform uses input order, not natural order by value, to determine the meaning of start and end. When the data is in reverse chronological order, the meaning of start and end is effectively reversed because the first data point is the most recent. Use a sort transform to change the order as needed.

If strict is false (the default), the window size is effectively reduced at the start or end of each series or both, depending on the anchor. Values computed with a truncated window may be noisy; if you would prefer to not show this data instead, set the strict option to true. ^0.6.0 The strict option can also have a dramatic effect if some data is missing: when strict, the reducer will be skipped if any of the values in the current window are null, undefined, or NaN.

Fork
js
``````Plot.plot({
y: {
grid: true,
label: "Temperature (°F)"
},
marks: [
Plot.lineY(sftemp, {x: "date", y: "low", strokeOpacity: 0.3}),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, anchor: "end", strict}, {x: "date", y: "low"}))
]
})``````
``````Plot.plot({
y: {
grid: true,
label: "Temperature (°F)"
},
marks: [
Plot.lineY(sftemp, {x: "date", y: "low", strokeOpacity: 0.3}),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, anchor: "end", strict}, {x: "date", y: "low"}))
]
})``````

The reduce option specifies how to compute the output value for the current window. It defaults to mean for a rolling average. Below, the rolling minimum, maximum, and median are shown. The window transform supports most of the same reducers as bin and group, and you can implement a custom reducer as a function if needed.

Fork
js
``````Plot.plot({
y: {
grid: true,
label: "Temperature (°F)"
},
marks: [
Plot.lineY(sftemp, {x: "date", y: "low", strokeOpacity: 0.3}),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, reduce: "min"}, {x: "date", y: "low", stroke: "blue"})),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, reduce: "max"}, {x: "date", y: "low", stroke: "red"})),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, reduce: "median"}, {x: "date", y: "low"}))
]
})``````
``````Plot.plot({
y: {
grid: true,
label: "Temperature (°F)"
},
marks: [
Plot.lineY(sftemp, {x: "date", y: "low", strokeOpacity: 0.3}),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, reduce: "min"}, {x: "date", y: "low", stroke: "blue"})),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, reduce: "max"}, {x: "date", y: "low", stroke: "red"})),
Plot.lineY(sftemp, Plot.windowY({k: 28, reduce: "median"}, {x: "date", y: "low"}))
]
})``````

While the windowY transform derives y (and y1 and y2), and the windowX transform likewise derives x, x1, and x2, you can use the map transform directly for other channels. For example, the chart below uses a variable stroke to encode slope: the monthly change in unemployment rate for each metropolitan division. The slope is computed with a window of size 2 and the difference reducer.

Fork
js
``````Plot.plot({
y: {grid: true},
color: {scheme: "BuYlRd", domain: [-0.5, 0.5]},
marks: [
Plot.ruleY(),
Plot.lineY(
bls,
Plot.map(
{stroke: Plot.window({k: 2, reduce: "difference"})},
{x: "date", y: "unemployment", z: "division", stroke: "unemployment"}
)
),
]
})``````
``````Plot.plot({
y: {grid: true},
color: {scheme: "BuYlRd", domain: [-0.5, 0.5]},
marks: [
Plot.ruleY(),
Plot.lineY(
bls,
Plot.map(
{stroke: Plot.window({k: 2, reduce: "difference"})},
{x: "date", y: "unemployment", z: "division", stroke: "unemployment"}
)
),
]
})``````

As shown above, the window transform also understands the z channel: each metropolitan division is treated as a separate series.

## Window options ​

The window transform supports the following options:

• k - the window size (the number of elements in the window)
• anchor - how to align the window: start, middle (default), or end
• reduce - the window reducer; defaults to mean
• strict - if true, output undefined if any window value is undefined; defaults to false

If the strict option is false (the default), the window will be automatically truncated as needed, and undefined input values are ignored. For example, if k is 24 and anchor is middle, then the initial 11 values have effective window sizes of 13, 14, 15, … 23, and likewise the last 12 values have effective window sizes of 23, 22, 21, … 12. Values computed with a truncated window may be noisy; if you would prefer to not show this data, set the strict option to true.

If the strict option is true, the output start values or end values or both (depending on the anchor) of each series may be undefined since there are not enough elements to create a window of size k; output values may also be undefined if some of the input values in the corresponding window are undefined.

The following named reducers are supported:

• min - the minimum
• max - the maximum
• mean - the mean (average)
• median - the median
• mode - the mode (most common occurrence)
• pXX - the percentile value, where XX is a number in [00,99]
• sum - the sum of values
• deviation - the standard deviation
• variance - the variance per Welford’s algorithm
• difference - the difference between the last and first window value
• ratio - the ratio of the last and first window value
• first - the first value
• last - the last value

A reducer may also be specified as a function to be passed an index of size k and the corresponding input channel array; or if the function only takes one argument, an array of k values.

## window(k) ^0.2.3​

js
``Plot.map({y: Plot.window(24)}, {x: "Date", y: "Close", stroke: "Symbol"})``
``Plot.map({y: Plot.window(24)}, {x: "Date", y: "Close", stroke: "Symbol"})``

Returns a window map method for the given window size k, suitable for use with Plot.map. For additional options to the window transform, replace the number k with an object with properties k, anchor, reduce, or strict.

## windowX(k, options) ​

js
``Plot.windowX(24, {y: "Date", x: "Anomaly"})``
``Plot.windowX(24, {y: "Date", x: "Anomaly"})``

Like mapX, but applies the window map method with the given window size k. For additional options to the window transform, replace the number k with an object with properties k, anchor, or reduce.

## windowY(k, options) ​

js
``Plot.windowY(24, {x: "Date", y: "Anomaly"})``
``Plot.windowY(24, {x: "Date", y: "Anomaly"})``

Like mapY, but applies the window map method with the given window size k. For additional options to the window transform, replace the number k with an object with properties k, anchor, or reduce.

Resources
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